The KT10H Magnetic Susceptibility meter is highly sensitive offering an order of magnitude more sensitive than the standard meter. Solely a Magnetic Susceptibility meter the KT10H is provided with a 60mm diameter circular coil, 3318mm2 measurement area. With all the features and connectivity as the standard KT10 system the KT10H can be used for specialist applications where the material magnetic susceptibility is in the order of 1x10-7 SI units.
Although the KT10H includes the sample pin and automatic measurement function for rough surfaces this meter performs best on processed samples with even volume and smooth surface to exploit the sensor sensitivity.
With a simple intuitive user interface and two button operation, this handheld meter incorporates a voice recording function for incorporating metadata to records and Bluetooth connectivity for GNSS position integration.
The KT-20 has the ability to accurately measure magnetic susceptibility, which is used extensively to determine the magnetic properties of rocks. This is vital for mineral exploration as magnetic susceptibility is related to the concentration and composition of magnetisable material contained in a sample. Magnetisable material includes magnetite, hematite, iron, titanium oxides and clay minerals (chlorite, smectite and glauconite). It can also display an estimated iron ore concentration (%) through the pre installed calibration curve.
The conductivity aspect of the KT-20 is particularly useful in mineral exploration because the target ore minerals generally have a high conductivity compared to the rock types with which they are associated. Metallic ore minerals can significantly affect the bulk resistivity/conductivity of a sample, even in small quantities.
The induced polarisation measurement with the KT-20 gives a dimensionless quantity known as chargeability. These measurements are influenced by minerals which conduct by electron flow, including pyrite and graphite. Clay minerals may also affect the IP measurements however this would be of a smaller magnitude.
Magnetic susceptibility in archaeology can be used to locate traces of previous human habitation, for example building foundations, field systems and areas of burning. The remains of a fire can affect magnetic susceptibility because silt particles and iron oxides can be transformed into very magnetic oxides through burning, and when the organic matter in soil burns it can change hematite to magnetite. Thus increased magnetic susceptibility hotspots could be due to large fires, hearths and kilns. If spikes are present in vertical sections of magnetic susceptibility data, this would indicate a burned layer. Magnetic susceptibility surveys are often used as a precursor to more in depth magnetic surveys. It is an effective way to determine areas of potential archaeological activity. The IP resistivity of samples can provide information on the presence of disturbed clay in an area which has previously been occupied by humans.
Magnetic susceptibility measurements can efficiently be used on soil and sediment samples to monitor anthropogenic pollution. These measurements can be used to identify polluted areas, and then to map these areas. Since the magnetic susceptibility is sensitive to ferromagnetic elements such as nickel, lead and zinc the KT-20 can be used to monitor pollution around industrial sites – both past and present. Heavy metal elements (iron, copper, manganese and nickel) have been shown to produce a correlation with magnetic susceptibility, indicating it is possible to use these as proxies for contamination.
Can I use the KT-10/KT-20 to measure small chips, pebbles, shavings, or powder samples (for example, drill chips from reverse circulation drilling)?
Yes. With some preparation, both the KT-10 and KT-20 can be used to measure the magnetic susceptibility and/or conductivity of small chips, pebbles, shavings, or powder samples. In order to make an accurate measurement, the samples should be
formed into a bulk sample that is larger than the KT-10/KT-20’s sensor (i.e. larger than the 66 mm diameter for circular sensors) with a thickness of at least 5cm (~2 inches). The samples can be aggregated in a thin plastic bag or glass container (e.g. Petri dish).
What are calibration and reference pads? Do I need one for my KT-10/KT-20?
Calibration/reference pads are used as a check source to verify the accuracy of measurements taken by the KT-10 and KT-20 systems, whether for magnetic susceptibility, conductivity, or IP/resistivity. Calibration pads have the added benefit of allowing users to recalibrate their magnetic susceptibility measurements. Although they’re not required, these pads can prove to be useful tools in validating your measurements. Many groups have a policy of testing their KT-10/KT-20 units at the beginning and end of each work day. These pads are particularly useful when multiple KT units are being used on a project to confirm that each of them is measuring a similar value.
A variety of different calibration/reference pads are available depending on the method being measured. Each pad comes with a test certificate and is compatible with a range of different models. All of the pads are compatible with the KT-20 system, subject to the type of sensor being utilized, and all Flat magnetic susceptibility and conductivity pads are compatible with the KT-10 system. Although the pads are designed for the KT-10 and KT-20 systems, they can also be used with other instruments. Magnetic Susceptibility Calibration Pads
Magnetic Susceptibility Calibration Pads
Conductivity Reference Pads
IP/Resistivity Reference Pad
A dedicated reference pad, the IP-T10, is also available to verify the various measurement parameters shown below of the KT-20’s IP/Resistivity Module.
Note Measurement values are influenced by external factors, such as temperature, environment, and the operator’s technique during the measurement sequence (e.g. the pressure applied on the sample during measurement). This may lead to slight differences observed between the measurement and the nominal value indicated for each pad.
What is the conductivity sensitivity for the various KT-10 models and KT-20 sensors?
Refer to the charts below for the range of conductivity sensitivities available.
The conductivity sensitivity for the KT-20 system is dependent on the sensors being used with the KT-20 console. See below for a breakdown of the conductivity sensitivities available with each applicable KT-20 sensor:
What is the depth penetration for the KT-10 and KT-20 system?
The depth penetration for the KT-10 and the KT-20’s standard sensors is approximately 4cm, with 90% of the readings coming from the first 2cm of a sample. The KT-20 can achieve greater depths when combined with the 3F-32 large diameter sensor.
The 3-frequency (1/10/100 kHz), 32cm diameter (3F-32) sensor has a depth penetration of +/– 32cm (subject to the electrical properties of the soil, the frequency used, and the size and characteristics of the source being measured) and is recommended for agriculture, archaeology, and environmental investigations.
What is the magnetic susceptibility sensitivity for the various KT-10 models and KT-20 sensors?
Refer to the charts below for the range of magnetic susceptibility sensitivities available.
The magnetic susceptibility sensitivity for the KT-20 system is dependent on the sensors being used with the KT-20 console. See below for a breakdown of the magnetic susceptibility sensitivities available with each applicable KT-20 sensor:
What upgrades are available with the KT-10 and KT-20 system and how do they work?
All “Remote” upgrades are available upon purchase or can be added remotely via an online firmware upgrade, eliminating the need to send the unit back to Terraplus. Remote upgrades are accessed by entering an unlock code (provided by
Terraplus) on the GeoView software or, in the case of the KT-20, on the device itself. Any upgrade added after the initial purchase is subject to an upgrade fee.
Note that all KT-20 upgrades apply to the console itself, rather than the individual sensors. For example, once a KT-20 console has been upgraded with the Plus functionality, all applicable sensors connected to the console will have access to the
upgrade – including sensors purchased at a subsequent date.